Interest Coverage Ratio
Interest coverage ratio is a measure of a company’s ability to pay interest. It equals operating cash flows before interest and taxes divided by total interest payments.
Interest coverage ratio differs from time interest earned ratio in that the coverage ratio is based on cash flows while the times interest earned (TIE) ratio is based on accrual-based figures. Cash flows are considered a better indicator of a company’s financial position and performance because they are less prone to distortions due to accounting policies and estimates. Finding out the number of time operating cash flows before interest and taxes are available to pay interest expense is useful in analysis of a company’s long-term financial strength.
Interest coverage ratio can be calculated based on figures available in the cash flows from operating activities section of the statement of cash flows using the following formula:
|Interest Coverage Ratio =||CFO + Interest + Tax|
Where CFO is the net cash flows from operating activities, interest is the actual interest payment and tax represent the actual tax payment.
We have added back interest because it is subtracted from operating cash inflows to arrive at the net CFO. We need to be careful here because some accounting standards allow companies to subtract interest payment as part of cash flows from financing activities. If that is the case, we do not need to add back interest. Tax is also added back because tax is charged after deduction of interest expense.
If we do not have cash flow from operations, we can use the following alternate formula to work out interest coverage ratio:
|Interest Coverage Ratio =||EBIT + Depreciation & Amortization|
Following is an extract from Volkswagen financial statements for the financial year 2015 and 2016.
|Euro in millions||2016||2015|
|Cash flows from operating activities||9,430||13,679|
|Interest paid (also interest expense)||3,247||2,393|
|Earnings before interest and tax||4,045||(3,694)|
Calculate the company’s interest coverage ratio and contrast it with times interest earned ratio.
Following is the calculation of interest coverage ratios for 2015 and 2016:
Interest Coverage Ratio (2015)
= (13,679 + 2,393 + 3,238) ÷ 2,393
Interest Coverage Ratio (2016)
= (9,430 + 3,247 + 3,315) ÷ 3,247
The interest coverage ratios show that the company’s interest-paying ability is good because its operating cash flows are enough to cover at 8 times the interest payment in 2015 and 5 times the interest payment in 2016.
Interest Coverage Ratio vs Time Interest Earned (TIE) Ratio
Times interest earned ratio is calculated by dividing earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) by interest expense. You can verify that the TIE ratios for 2015 and 2016 are -1.54 and 1.25, respectively. This shows that times interest earned ratio is not meaningful in 2015 because the company has negative earnings before interest and taxes.
If we dig deeper, we find negative EBIT in 2015 was due to losses recognized on foreign-exchange derivative contracts.