Historical Cost Concept
Accounting is concerned with past events and it requires consistency and comparability that is why it requires the accounting transactions to be recorded at their historical costs. This is called historical cost concept.
Historical cost is the value of a resource given up or a liability incurred to acquire an asset/service at the time when the resource was given up or the liability incurred.
In subsequent periods when there is appreciation is value, the value is not recognized as an increase in assets value except where allowed or required by accounting standards.
- 100 units of an item were purchased one month back for $10 per unit. The price today is $11 per unit. The inventory shall appear on balance sheet at $1,000 and not at $1,100.
- The company built its ERP in 2008 at a cost of $40 million. In 2010 it is estimated that the present value of the future benefits attributable to the ERP is $1 billion. The ERP shall stand on balance sheet at its historical costs less accumulated depreciation.
The concept of historical cost is important because market values change so often that allowing reporting of assets and liabilities at current values would distort the whole fabric of accounting, impair comparability and makes accounting information unreliable.