Primary & Secondary Market

A primary market is a market in which corporations sell their securities to investors for the first time. On the other hand, a secondary market is a market in which investors trade the securities already issued with each other.

Break-even Analysis

In management accounting, break-even analysis is a technique aimed at finding the level of sales (in units or dollars) at which a company is neither making a profit nor incurring a loss.

Differential Analysis

Differential analysis (also called incremental analysis) is a management accounting technique in which we examine only the changes in revenues, costs and profits that result from a business decision instead of creating complete income statements for each alternative.

Segment Margin

Segment margin is the amount contributed by a segment towards common fixed costs and profit of a business. It equals the contribution margin of a segment minus traceable fixed costs i.e. fixed costs which can be traced to it.

Contribution Margin per Unit

Contribution margin per unit is the net amount that each additional unit sold contributes towards a company’s fixed costs and profit. It equals the difference between the product’s sales price and variable cost per unit.

Derivation of DOL Formula

Degree of operating leverage (DOL) is defined as percentage change in operating income that occurs in response to a percentage change in sales. In this article we use this definition to derive different formulas for DOL.

Manufacturing Overhead Costs

Manufacturing overheads costs represent all such costs which are incurred in production of goods excluding direct materials and direct labor. Manufacturing overhead costs are further classified into fixed manufacturing overhead costs and variable manufacturing overhead costs.

Variable Costs

In management accounting, variable costs are cost items whose total cost varies proportionately with some underlying activity level such as total units, labor hours, machine hours, etc.

Mixed Costs

Mixed costs (also called semi-variable costs) are costs that have both fixed and variable components. The fixed element doesn’t change with change in activity level at all and the variable component changes proportionately with activity.

Trial Balance

Trial balance is a draft report used by accountants that simply lists all the ledger account balances extracted from the accounting system of a business at a given date.